Smoking is one of the biggest threats to public health in the world, and smokers tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI) and decreased nutritional status can increase the risk of malnutrition, which worsens the health condition of smokers compared to non-smokers. Based on data from the World Health Organization (WHO), it is recorded that the number of smokers in the world has reached 84%, which is around 1.09 billion people in developing countries. This has resulted in an increasing burden of disease and death related to cigarette consumption in developing countries, one of which is Indonesia.
Smoking is one of the factors that can affect nutritional status. Smoking can lose weight by increasing the metabolic rate, reducing appetite. In addition, smoking also causes a lack of food taste in smokers, so that smokers experience a decrease in appetite (Chiolero, 2008).
The nicotine in cigarettes can also suppress appetite, triggering behavioural changes that encourage smokers to eat less. This process begins during the burning of cigarettes, namely the entry of nicotine into the blood circulation by 25% and into the human brain for approximately 15 seconds. Then the nicotine will be accepted by the acetylcholine-nicotinic receptors to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the reward pathway so that it will reduce appetite, so that smokers generally have a lower body weight than nonsmokers because smokers have a higher energy expenditure than people who don’t smoke. (Ilfandari & Ervina, 2015).
Smoking can also cause addicts to have deficiencies of vitamins A, C, E, B, beta-carotene, zinc, copper, iron, and other micronutrients. So, to meet the nutritional needs of smokers, a good diet is needed. To meet the needs of the necessary nutritional intake, we can eat foods that are often found around us. To meet the need for vitamin A, it is recommended to eat red meat and vegetables that are brightly coloured such as bright yellow, orange or red are good sources of vitamin A. Fruits and vegetables around us such as papaya, carrots, purple-coloured sweet potatoes and rimbang are good sources of vitamin A. Vitamin C and vitamin E can be fulfilled by eating fruits such as berries and vegetables.
It can be concluded that smoking has the potential to cause diseases for humans. Cigarettes are also one of the factors that can worsen nutritional intake. The use of cigarettes can affect a person’s appetite so that it can affect a person’s nutritional intake as well. Cigarettes in general will reduce a person’s appetite so that it can cause various diseases. Therefore, it takes a good diet and adequate exercise by consuming the nutrients needed to maintain a healthy body. However, smoking activities must still be stopped because a good lifestyle does not guarantee that it can overcome the bad effects caused by smoking activities.
Contributor: Nurul’aidha MD 4th semester student of Bachelor of Nutrition, FKM UI
Ilfandari, A dan Ervina, A. 2015. Hubungan Perilaku Merokok dengan Indeks Masa Tubuh Remaja Putra. E-Jurnal Obstretika. 3(1): 1-15
Chiolero, A. dkk. 2008. Consequences of Smoking For Body Weight, Body Fat Distribution, and Insulin Resistence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87: 801-9.
Pawera, L. dkk. 2018. Buku Panduan untuk Masyarakat: Keanekaragaman Hayati Lokal untuk Gizi dan Kesehatan Masyarakat. Available : https://sipakaril.ipb.ac.id/Files/0f24e8e8-8d2e-4c46-b057-e888011c36c5/paper_0f24e8e8-8d2e-4c46-b057-e888011c36c5.pdf
Suardi, M. Vitamin ‘Pelindung’ Bagi Perokok. Universitas Andalas. Available : https://ffarmasi.unand.ac.id/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=118:vitamin-pelindung-bagi-perokok&Itemid=344