Bread is a product made from wheat flour which is then formed by a fermentation process by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or other developing ingredients which are then baked (Mudjajanto and Yulianti, 2004). There are many ways to eat this bread, it can be eaten directly or processed into toast. For some people, bread is a staple food, such as in European and American countries. In Indonesia, bread that is often consumed is white bread and whole wheat bread. These two types of bread can be made into a variety of foods, such as toast, bread pudding, and sandwiches and many more. White bread has a texture that tends to be softer than whole wheat bread which has a rough texture.
White bread and whole wheat bread actually have something in common, both of which come from wheat seed. This wheat grain consists of several parts, there are skin, endosperm, and seeds or germs.
This part of the skin (bran) is rich in fibre, vitamins, and minerals, the endosperm contains carbohydrates with several proteins and vitamins, and the seeds (germ) contain vitamin B, vitamin E, and good fats. The difference is that white bread is made from flour which comes from the endosperm of wheat grains. While whole wheat bread is made from all parts of wheat germ, namely skin, endosperm, and germ (seed).
100 grams of white bread contains 266 calories, 3.29 g of fat, 50.61 grams of carbohydrates, and 7.64 grams of protein. Meanwhile, on 100 grams of whole wheat bread, there are 259 calories, 4.11 grams of fat, 47.14 grams of carbohydrates, and 9.13 grams of protein (fatsecret.co.id). In whole wheat bread, the fibre content is more than white bread. White bread has a higher glycemic index level than whole wheat bread. The glycemic index is the value assigned to foods based on how slowly or how quickly they cause an increase in blood glucose levels. For men aged 19-29 years, the daily need for fibre is 37 grams, while for women aged 19-29 years, the daily need for fibre is 32 grams (RDA, 2019). Whole wheat bread can be one of the foods for fibre intake. Care must be taken in choosing whole grain breads that are made from whole grains. Consuming whole grains can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (Aune, 2013). Fibre, phytochemicals in whole grains can increase insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism and slow down the absorption of food so you don’t get hungry easily. In addition, whole grains can reduce cholesterol levels, low density lipoproteins (bad fats), and insulin levels (Mellen, 2008). One thing that is important to remember is to choose foods according to your body’s needs. Don’t forget to exercise and get enough rest.
Contributor: Nur Rahma Utami 4th semester student of Bachelor of Nutrition, FKM UI
Reference: Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ. 2013. Whole grain and refined grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies.Eur J Epidemiol ;28:845-58.
Harvard Medical School. 2015. Glycemic Index for 60+ Foods. Harvard Health Publishing
Mellen PB, Walsh TF, Herrington DM. 2008.Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ;18:283-90.
Mudjajanto ES dan Yulianti LN. 2004. Membuat Aneka Roti. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta
Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 28 Tahun 2019 Tentang Angka Kecukupan Gizi yang Dianjurkan untuk Masyarakat Indonesia